Food: Abbreviations

SIM MAGAZINES* (including Diabetic Living):
Do use abbreviations in
1. Recipe ingredients lists (singular and plural are the same):
ml (no period)
2. Nutritional analysis:
calorie—cal.; saturated fat—sat. fat; cholesterol—chol.; carbohydrates—carb.; protein—pro.;
gram—g (no period); milligram—mg (no period)
3. Stand-alone paragraph-style recipes that are not part of a main recipe.
4. Recipe methods, running copy, subrecipes, variations, blurbs, or footnotes

Do not use abbreviations in
Timings given with recipes:

Do not use abbreviations in recipes. (added 2/5/20)

Do use abbreviations in
1. Recipe ingredients lists (singular and plural are the same):
ml (no period)
2. Recipe methods, running copy, subrecipes, variations, blurbs, and footnotes
3. Timings given with recipes (singular and plural are the same):
4. Nutritional analysis (do not use periods):
calorie—cal; cholesterol—chol; carbohydrates—carb; protein—pro; gram—g; milligram—mg
Do not use abbreviations in
1. Recipe ingredients lists:
2. Recipe methods, running copy, subrecipes, variations, blurbs, or footnotes

Do use abbreviations in
1. Timings given with recipes (no punctuation):
2. Nutritional analysis:
calorie—cal.; saturated fat—sat. fat; >cholesterol—chol.; carbohydrates—carb.; protein—pro.;
gram—g (no period); milligram—mg (no period)

See also Nutrition Analysis and Serving Information for usage.



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Food: Ingredients

The amount is separated from ingredient by a tab. Indent subsequent lines of individual ingredients. Check fraction size for readability.

cup frozen green beans
16-oz. can whole tomatoes, drained
medium onion, chopped (1⁄2 cup)
cups butter

For abbreviations, see Food: Abbreviations

Use numerals in ingredients lists.

Do not use en dashes between numerals.
2 to 3 tsp. dried basil

When two ingredients are listed with “or” or “and/or” between them, call for only the first ingredient in the method:
1 lb. yams or sweet potatoes
1 lb. yams and/or sweet potatoes

BH&G: Use measures for ingredients unless it is illogical. So 1/2 cup chopped onion, not 1 large onion, chopped. We can add the amount if needed as shopping info. (added 7/5/2017)

  • 1 cup chopped onion
  • 3/4 cup chopped celery
  • 1/2 cup chopped green bell pepper
  • 2 carrots, julienned (about 1 cup)


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Food: Style/Terminology

1 egg, beaten
not 1 beaten egg

1 tsp. black pepper
not 1 teaspoon pepper
(the pepper can also be crushed, ground, or coarse ground)

snipped fresh parsley
not snipped parsley
(pertains to all fresh herbs)

2 Tbsp. packed brown sugar
(use “packed” no matter what the measurement)

Do not use “granulated” with sugar unless there are other kinds of sugar.

In a food processor or blender
(not “In a food processor bowl or blender container”)

punch dough down; turn dough out

reduced-sodium chicken broth BUT lower-sodium beef broth

COMMON BAKING PAN SIZES (updated 10/18/19)

  • Use dish if it is glass or ceramic; pan if it is metal.
  • Dishes are usually used for things like casseroles or baked items that contain an acid like a blueberry filling.
  • Casseroles are usually round or oval and can have a lid.
  • See page 477 of Red Plaid 17th edition for more information.

8-inch round cake pan (specify 8×2-inch round cake pans only when you need the depth)
9-inch round cake pan (specify 9×2-inch round cake pans only when you need the depth)
8-inch square cake pan
9-inch square cake pan
11×7-inch baking pan
13×9-inch baking pan
15×10-inch baking pan
15×10-inch jelly-roll pan (when being used for baking a jelly-roll cake)
9×5-inch loaf pan or 8×4-inch loaf pan
1½-quart rectangular baking dish
2-quart rectangular baking pan
2-quart square baking dish (volume is equal to an 8-inch baking pan)
3-quart rectangular baking dish (volume is equivalent to 13×9-inch baking pan)
9-inch pie plate


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Food: Instructions

(updated 6.3.15)

Timings given with recipes can include some or all of the following. They should be listed in recipe order. (Do not use colons following these headings.) (updated 12.11.14)
Start to Finish (reserved for quick recipes; usually 30 minutes or less)

For recipe instructions, start the instruction in each step by calling for a vessel or utensil:
In a small mixing bowl combine …

Italicize or place in opposite typeface any ingredients in instructions that aren’t listed in the ingredients list, including water, salt, pepper, and nonstick cooking spray, except water that is only to cook in or soak an ingredient. Subrecipes are an exception. Do not italicize the additional use of an ingredient in the instructions that is already included in the ingredients list (unless the ingredient is a full package, such as a 6-oz. container of yogurt).
add 1 teaspoon salt to the mixture
add pepper to taste

Drained and undrained should be included in the ingredients list only. If not possible (for space reasons), italicize in the instructions text.
1 16-oz. can tomatoes, undrained (ingredients list)
Add undrained tomatoes to sauce (instructions copy, if not in ingredients list)

Call for black pepper in instructions copy when other varieties of pepper are also used in the main recipe, such as cayenne pepper, jalapeño pepper, bottled hot pepper sauce, etc. Call for ground black pepper, cracked black pepper, coarse ground black pepper, etc., only when specifically needed for a recipe.

Specify granulated sugar in ingredients list and instructions copy when other types of sugar are also used in the main recipe, such as powdered sugar, brown sugar, etc.

Don’t break a fraction or a single-digit number and its measurement at the end of a line.

Use the degree symbol (option-shift-8) and “F” for Fahrenheit after the oven temp (no spaces, no periods).

For percent symbol: (updated 8.29.19)
Microwave language: “Microwave on high XX minutes, but “Microwave on 50% power (medium) XX minutes.”
50%-less-sodium beef broth
100-percent-cotton kitchen string

Use Dimension X with measurements.
8×10-inch pan

Don’t use en dashes between numerals in instructions copy; use “to” instead.
Bake cookies 7 to 9 minutes. (not 7–9 minutes)

Use the word “until” (not “till”) when used to describe a doneness test.
Cook 6 to 8 minutes or until crisp.

In the method, indicate “preheat oven” at beginning of recipe or at appropriate other point in recipe (e.g., after a long chill time or after rising for bread). It is not necessary to repeat oven temperature in actual baking instructions.
Preheat oven to 350ºF.
Bake 20 to 25 minutes or until heated through.
(NOT “Bake in the preheated oven …” or “Bake in the 350ºF oven …)

See also Punctuation.


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Cheese List

Bel Paese (trademark)
Chihuahua cheese
Devonshire cheese
Dry Jack
Emmental; Emmentaler; Emmenthal
farmer cheese
Gloucester, Double
Gloucester, Single
Gourmandise (trademark)
Grana Padano
Italian-blend cheeses
Jack, Monterey
Jack, Dry
Liederkranz (trademark)
Maytag Blue
Mexican-style four-cheese blend
Monterey Jack
neufchatel (lower-fat cream cheese with a higher moisture content)
Neufchâtel (soft, white, unripened cheese from France)
paneer (added 7/1/19)
pecorino (generic Italian cheese made from sheep’s milk)
Pecorino Romano
Pecorino Sardo
Port du Salut
process American
Provolone Valpadana
queso fresco (don’t add “cheese” to it)
queso Oaxaca (also called asadero)
ricotta salata



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Singulars and Plurals

Use singular for an ingredient if only one of an item is used. Use plural for an ingredient if more than one of an item is used. If ingredients such as cucumber, cabbage, onion, etc., are chopped or otherwise prepared, determine singular or plural based on how many units are needed to get the measured amount.
1 cup chopped onion (only one onion is needed to get 1 cup)
2 cups chopped onions (more than one onion is needed)

In method, maintain consistency with ingredients list.
1⁄4 cup chopped onion
2 tomatoes, chopped
2 carrots

Add onion, tomatoes, and carrots.

For seeds, use the plural form.
1⁄4 cup sesame seeds (not sesame seed)


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Recipe names

Capitalize all words except prepositions of fewer than five letters and conjunctions.

Always capitalize the first word of the second and subsequent lines unless the designer calls for
lowercase, for example in a title treatment.
Pumpkin Cake
With Sour Cream Frosting

Use the following guidelines in deciding whether to hyphenate a title:

Hyphenate when there are two ingredients combining to make an item (instead of using “and”).
Banana-Orange Frozen Yogurt
Barley-Wheat Bread
Asparagus-Cheese Omelet

Hyphenate when there’s some action to the second word.
Herb-Marinated Vegetables
Spinach-Stuffed Fish Rolls

Always hyphenate with “style.”
Greek-Style Salad
California-Style Vegetables

Don’t hyphenate when the first word describes the second rather than being an equal part of the recipe.
Greek Meatball Sandwich
Gingered Orange Refresher
California Chicken Stir-Fry
Caramel Apple Tart

Don’t use a hyphen if it would be overwhelming.
Peanut Butter Chocolate Chip Cookies

Keep recipe titles as simple as possible. Use “and” only when necessary for clarity.

Turkey-Shrimp Jambalaya
Chicken-Pasta Salad
Beef and Red Onion Bake
Wild Rice and Bulgur Pilaf
Beef-Olive Turnovers
Artichoke and Dried Tomato Pesto
Turkey and Shrimp Jambalaya
Chicken and Pasta Salad
Beef-Red Onion Bake
Wild Rice-Bulgur Pilaf
Beef-and-Olive Turnovers
Artichoke-and-Dried-Tomato Pesto

In some cases, keep the “and” and the hyphens for clarity.
Spinach-and-Cheese-Stuffed Eggs

Where applicable, substitute “with” for “and.”
Oven-Fried Chicken with Potato Salad NOT Oven-Fried Chicken and Potato Salad

Don’t hyphenate common terms.
Peanut Butter
Whole Wheat
Graham Cracker
Sour Cream
Ice Cream

There may be some close calls; but use the “and” criteria for help.
Lemon Pudding Cake
Turkey Waldorf Salad
Chili Vegetable Platter
(In these examples, the first word is describing the last two).



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In recipe method, spell out whole numbers less than 10, unless they are followed by a unit of measurement or time (teaspoons, cups, minutes, weeks, degrees, servings, etc.).
Combine two of the eggs.
Divide greens among eight salad plates.
Sprinkle with 1 cup of the flour.
Chill 5 minutes.
Freeze in an airtight container up to 3 months.
Cut peels from three tangerines.
Add the two cloves garlic.
Use half of a 6-ounce can.
Top three graham cracker squares with 1 tablespoon chocolate-hazelnut spread.

For subrecipes and stand-alone paragraph-style recipes, use a number for any ingredient that would be written with a number in a traditional ingredients list.
Add 1 egg.
Cut peels from 3 tangerines.
Mince 2 cloves garlic.
Use half of a 6-ounce can.
Use half of a 6-oz. can. (stand-alone paragraph-style recipe)
Top 3 crackers with 1 tablespoon chocolate-hazelnut spread. (subrecipe)
Top 3 crackers with 1 Tbsp. chocolate-hazelnut spread. (stand-alone paragraph-style recipe)

Spell out numbers in the following cases:
When a number precedes another number in instructions copy, captions, and other text:
sixteen 2-cup measures

Numbers used in portions and descriptions:
five-spice powder

A number that’s part of a partial ingredient:
spoon one-third of the mixture
add half of the sauce

For whole numbers with fractions in ingredients list and method:
In InDesign, insert a hair space between the number and the fraction (Type/Insert White Space/Hair Space).



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Food: Hyphens

Avoid overuse of hyphens in instructions copy.
Baking sheet lined with waxed paper (not waxed-paper-lined baking sheet)

Do not hyphenate combinations with the word “well” if they occur after the noun.
Cook until well done.

Do not use hyphens to break syllables in rag format unless the hyphens indicate compound words.

Check for two-or three-line ladders in InDesign. Refit copy if possible.



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Pasta List

acini di pepe (tiny and rice-shape)
agnolotti (small, crescent-shape, and stuffed ravioli-style)
alphabet (tiny letters)
anelli; anellini (tiny rings; anellini is the smaller version)
anellone (large rings)
angel hair (long, extremely fine, delicate strands; also known as capelli d’angelo)
anolini (small, crescent-shape, ruffle-edge ravioli)
bavettine; bavette (narrow ribbons)
bean threads (mung bean cellophane noodles; Asian)
bow tie pasta (see farfalle)
bucatini; bucatoni (hollow, long strands; slightly thicker than spaghetti [bucatoni are the thicker of the two])
campanelle (bell shape)
canestrini (small, ridged, hourglass shape)
cannaroni (wide tubes; also known as zitoni)
cannelloni (large, round tubes or squares rolled into tubes; typically stuffed, then baked with sauce)
capelli d’angelo (see angel hair)
capellini (thin strands slightly thicker than capelli d’angelo; also known as fidelini)
capellini, nested
cappelletti (hat-shape stuffed pasta[nurse’s or bishop’s caps], similar to ravioli)
cavatappi (short, thin, ridged macaroni spirals)
cavatelli (short, narrow, ripple-edge shells)
cellentani (see cavatappi)
chifferi (small, curved macaroni)
chow mein noodles (fried noodles)
ciciones (see malloreddus)
conchiglie (shell-shaped, typically ridged; also known as seashell pasta)
conchigliette (smaller version of conchiglie)
conchiglioni (larger version of conchiglie)
coralli (tiny rings; generally used for soup)
corzetti (round, relatively flat, and about 2 inches in diameter; stamped with various patterns)
creste di galli; creste (medium size and curved with a ruffled crest on the outside edge)
couscous (steamed semolina)
ditali (small, short tubes of macaroni)
ditalini (tiny ditali)
egg noodles (short, flat ribbons)
egg roll wrappers (thin noodle sheets; Asian)
elbow pasta (any of a variety of short, curved tubular pastas, such as macaroni)
farfalle (bow tie or butterfly shape)
farfallini (small farfalle)
farfallone (large farfalle)
fedelini (very fine spaghetti)
futtucce (the widest [about1/2 inch] of the fettuccine noodles)
fettuccelle (the thinnest [about 1/8 inch] of the fettuccine noodles
fettuccine (thin, flat egg noodles about 1/4 inch wide)
fidelini (see capellini)
fideos (thin strands coiled in bunches)
fischietti (the smallest of the tube pastas)
fusilli (a spiral spaghetti [fusilli lunghi is 10–12 inches long; cut fusilli is about 1-1/2 inches long])
gemelli (short, 1-1/2-inch-long twists that resemble two strands of spaghetti twisted together)
gigantoni (huge macaroni that is about 1-1/2 inches in diameter and 2 inches long)
gigli (ruffle-edged and shaped like a closed lily)
gnocchi (small, ripple-edge shells)
kluski (dense egg noodles or unfilled dumplings; Polish)
lasagna (long, broad noodles [2–3 inches wide] with straight or rippled edges)
linguine (narrow [1/8 inch wide or less], long ribbons)
lumache (large shells intended for stuffing)
macarones (see malloreddus)
macaroni (tube shapes of various lengths)
mafalda, pl. mafalde (broad, flat, ripple-edge noodles)
magliette (short, curved tubes)
malloreddus (small, ridged, and elongated; often flavored with saffron [also known as ciciones and macarones])
maltagliati (flat, thin, 2-inch-long triangular shapes used for soups)
manicotti (large tubes about 4 inches long and 1 inch in diameter; intended for stuffing)
margherite (narrow flat noodles with one rippled edge)
maruzze (shell shapes in several sizes from tiny to jumbo)
melone (see semi de melone)
mezzani (short curved tubes)
mostaccioli (2-inch-long ridged or smooth tubes)
orecchiette (tiny disk shapes)
orzo (tiny rice shapes; used in soups)
pansotti (triangular-shaped, stuffed ravioli with pinked edges)
pappardelle (flat, long, wide [about 5/8 inch] noodles with rippled edges)
pastina (any of various tiny shapes [such as acini de pepe]; generally used in soups)
penne (diagonally cut smooth tubes; penne rigate have ridged sides)
perciatelli (thin and hollow; about twice as thick as spaghetti and similar to bucatini)
pizzoccheri (thick buckwheat noodles)
pot sticker wrappers (dumplings)
quadrettini (small flat squares used in soup)
quadrucci (tiny flat squares used in soup)
radiatore (short, chunky shapes [about 1 inch long and 1/2 inch in diameter] that resemble tiny radiators with rippled edges)
ravioli (square-shaped and stuffed)
ricciolini (wide, softly twisted noodles about 2 inches long)
rice sticks (Asian)
rigatoni (large grooved macaroni about 1-1/2 inches wide
riso (rice-shaped; similar to orzo)
rosamarina (pumpkin-seed shapes; used in soups)
rotelle (small, spoked-wheel shapes)
rotini (short spirals, 1–2 inches long)
ruote; ruote de carro (small, spoked-wheel shapes)
seashell pasta (see conchiglie)
semi de melone (tiny, flat, melon-seed shapes; also known as melone)
soba (buckwheat noodles)
spaetzle (a small dumpling cooked by running batter through a colander into boiling water)
spaghetti (long, thin, round strands)
spaghettini (thin spaghetti that’s thicker than fettuccine)
stelline (tiny and star-shaped with a hole in the middle; used in soups)
tagliarini (long, paper-thin ribbons, usually less than 1/8 inch wide; also known as tagliolini)
tagliatelle (long, thin, flat egg noodles about 1/4 inch wide)
tagliolini (see tagliarini)
tonnarelli (long egg pasta; similar to spaghetti, but with squared sides)
tortellini (small and stuffed, similar to cappelletti)
tortelloni (large tortellini)
tortiglioni (large spiral-edged tubes)
trenette (narrower, thicker version of tagliatelle)
trenne (triangular penne)
tripolini (small bow ties with rounded edges)
tubetti (tiny, hollow tubes)
udon (broad white noodles)
vermicelli (thin strands of spaghetti)
wonton wrappers (paper-thin squares of dough)
ziti (relatively thin tubes ranging in length from 2–12 inches)
zitoni (see cannaroni)



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