Singulars and Plurals

Use singular for an ingredient if only one of an item is used. Use plural for an ingredient if more than one of an item is used. If ingredients such as cucumber, cabbage, onion, etc., are chopped or otherwise prepared, determine singular or plural based on how many units are needed to get the measured amount.
1 cup chopped onion (only one onion is needed to get 1 cup)
2 cups chopped onions (more than one onion is needed)

In method, maintain consistency with ingredients list.
1⁄4 cup chopped onion
2 tomatoes, chopped
2 carrots

Add onion, tomatoes, and carrots.

For seeds, use the plural form.
1⁄4 cup sesame seeds (not sesame seed)


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Food: Hyphens

Avoid overuse of hyphens in instructions copy.
Baking sheet lined with waxed paper (not waxed-paper-lined baking sheet)

Do not hyphenate combinations with the word “well” if they occur after the noun.
Cook until well done.

Do not use hyphens to break syllables in rag format unless the hyphens indicate compound words.

Check for two-or three-line ladders in InDesign. Refit copy if possible.



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Pasta List

acini di pepe (tiny and rice-shape)
agnolotti (small, crescent-shape, and stuffed ravioli-style)
alphabet (tiny letters)
anelli; anellini (tiny rings; anellini is the smaller version)
anellone (large rings)
angel hair (long, extremely fine, delicate strands; also known as capelli d’angelo)
anolini (small, crescent-shape, ruffle-edge ravioli)
bavettine; bavette (narrow ribbons)
bean threads (mung bean cellophane noodles; Asian)
bow tie pasta (see farfalle)
bucatini; bucatoni (hollow, long strands; slightly thicker than spaghetti [bucatoni are the thicker of the two])
campanelle (bell shape)
canestrini (small, ridged, hourglass shape)
cannaroni (wide tubes; also known as zitoni)
cannelloni (large, round tubes or squares rolled into tubes; typically stuffed, then baked with sauce)
capelli d’angelo (see angel hair)
capellini (thin strands slightly thicker than capelli d’angelo; also known as fidelini)
capellini, nested
cappelletti (hat-shape stuffed pasta[nurse’s or bishop’s caps], similar to ravioli)
cavatappi (short, thin, ridged macaroni spirals)
cavatelli (short, narrow, ripple-edge shells)
cellentani (see cavatappi)
chifferi (small, curved macaroni)
chow mein noodles (fried noodles)
ciciones (see malloreddus)
conchiglie (shell-shaped, typically ridged; also known as seashell pasta)
conchigliette (smaller version of conchiglie)
conchiglioni (larger version of conchiglie)
coralli (tiny rings; generally used for soup)
corzetti (round, relatively flat, and about 2 inches in diameter; stamped with various patterns)
creste di galli; creste (medium size and curved with a ruffled crest on the outside edge)
couscous (steamed semolina)
ditali (small, short tubes of macaroni)
ditalini (tiny ditali)
egg noodles (short, flat ribbons)
egg roll wrappers (thin noodle sheets; Asian)
elbow pasta (any of a variety of short, curved tubular pastas, such as macaroni)
farfalle (bow tie or butterfly shape)
farfallini (small farfalle)
farfallone (large farfalle)
fedelini (very fine spaghetti)
futtucce (the widest [about1/2 inch] of the fettuccine noodles)
fettuccelle (the thinnest [about 1/8 inch] of the fettuccine noodles
fettuccine (thin, flat egg noodles about 1/4 inch wide)
fidelini (see capellini)
fideos (thin strands coiled in bunches)
fischietti (the smallest of the tube pastas)
fusilli (a spiral spaghetti [fusilli lunghi is 10–12 inches long; cut fusilli is about 1-1/2 inches long])
gemelli (short, 1-1/2-inch-long twists that resemble two strands of spaghetti twisted together)
gigantoni (huge macaroni that is about 1-1/2 inches in diameter and 2 inches long)
gigli (ruffle-edged and shaped like a closed lily)
gnocchi (small, ripple-edge shells)
kluski (dense egg noodles or unfilled dumplings; Polish)
lasagna (long, broad noodles [2–3 inches wide] with straight or rippled edges)
linguine (narrow [1/8 inch wide or less], long ribbons)
lumache (large shells intended for stuffing)
macarones (see malloreddus)
macaroni (tube shapes of various lengths)
mafalda, pl. mafalde (broad, flat, ripple-edge noodles)
magliette (short, curved tubes)
malloreddus (small, ridged, and elongated; often flavored with saffron [also known as ciciones and macarones])
maltagliati (flat, thin, 2-inch-long triangular shapes used for soups)
manicotti (large tubes about 4 inches long and 1 inch in diameter; intended for stuffing)
margherite (narrow flat noodles with one rippled edge)
maruzze (shell shapes in several sizes from tiny to jumbo)
melone (see semi de melone)
mezzani (short curved tubes)
mostaccioli (2-inch-long ridged or smooth tubes)
orecchiette (tiny disk shapes)
orzo (tiny rice shapes; used in soups)
pansotti (triangular-shaped, stuffed ravioli with pinked edges)
pappardelle (flat, long, wide [about 5/8 inch] noodles with rippled edges)
pastina (any of various tiny shapes [such as acini de pepe]; generally used in soups)
penne (diagonally cut smooth tubes; penne rigate have ridged sides)
perciatelli (thin and hollow; about twice as thick as spaghetti and similar to bucatini)
pizzoccheri (thick buckwheat noodles)
pot sticker wrappers (dumplings)
quadrettini (small flat squares used in soup)
quadrucci (tiny flat squares used in soup)
radiatore (short, chunky shapes [about 1 inch long and 1/2 inch in diameter] that resemble tiny radiators with rippled edges)
ravioli (square-shaped and stuffed)
ricciolini (wide, softly twisted noodles about 2 inches long)
rice sticks (Asian)
rigatoni (large grooved macaroni about 1-1/2 inches wide
riso (rice-shaped; similar to orzo)
rosamarina (pumpkin-seed shapes; used in soups)
rotelle (small, spoked-wheel shapes)
rotini (short spirals, 1–2 inches long)
ruote; ruote de carro (small, spoked-wheel shapes)
seashell pasta (see conchiglie)
semi de melone (tiny, flat, melon-seed shapes; also known as melone)
soba (buckwheat noodles)
spaetzle (a small dumpling cooked by running batter through a colander into boiling water)
spaghetti (long, thin, round strands)
spaghettini (thin spaghetti that’s thicker than fettuccine)
stelline (tiny and star-shaped with a hole in the middle; used in soups)
tagliarini (long, paper-thin ribbons, usually less than 1/8 inch wide; also known as tagliolini)
tagliatelle (long, thin, flat egg noodles about 1/4 inch wide)
tagliolini (see tagliarini)
tonnarelli (long egg pasta; similar to spaghetti, but with squared sides)
tortellini (small and stuffed, similar to cappelletti)
tortelloni (large tortellini)
tortiglioni (large spiral-edged tubes)
trenette (narrower, thicker version of tagliatelle)
trenne (triangular penne)
tripolini (small bow ties with rounded edges)
tubetti (tiny, hollow tubes)
udon (broad white noodles)
vermicelli (thin strands of spaghetti)
wonton wrappers (paper-thin squares of dough)
ziti (relatively thin tubes ranging in length from 2–12 inches)
zitoni (see cannaroni)



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Wine List

Follow Wine Lover’s Companion (Sharon Tyler Herbst) for spelling and capitalization of wine names. In general, wine names derived from proper nouns, such as Bordeaux and Champagne, are capped; generic and descriptive wine names, such as dessert wine and rosé, are lowercase.

Below are the proper spellings for some common wines.

Armagnac (a brandy)
Asti Spumante
blanc de blanc (“white wine from white grapes”)
blanc de noir (“white wine from red grapes”; sometimes called blush or rosé)
Blanc de Pinot Noir
Cabernet Blanc
Cabernet Franc
Cabernet Sauvignon
Calvados (a brandy)
Cava (Cava refers specifically to the Spanish product; otherwise call for cava or sparkling wine) (added 9/19/17)
Champagne (Champagne refers specifically to the French product; otherwise call for champagne or sparkling wine) (updated 9/19/17)
Chenin Blanc
Cognac (a brandy)
cold duck
Colombard/French Colombard
Côtes du Rhône
fino (a sherry)
Johannisberg Riesling
late-harvest wines
Madeira/madeira (cap only when referring to the product of Portugal’s madeira island; otherwise lowercase)
manzanilla (a sherry)
May wine (actually a punch made with wine)
mirin (a Japanese rice wine)
oloroso (a sherry)
Petite Sirah
Pinot Blanc
Pinot Grigio
Pinot Gris
Pinot Noir
rice wine
sake (a Japanese rice wine)
sauterne (a generic name for inexpensive California white wines) (use sparingly to avoid confusion with Sauternes)
Sauternes (a sweet dessert wine from France) (singular and plural)
Sauvignon Blanc
Shiraz (what Syrah is called in Australia)
sparkling wine
spumante (pl. spumanti)
varietal wine (a wine that uses the name of the dominant grape from which it’s made, such as Chardonnay)
vin santo
White Zinfandel (a blush wine)
Zinfandel (a red wine)



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